自考英语课程写作基础改写病句中串句与破句的试题分析

2019-06-04
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改写病句是全国自考《英语写作基础》课的必考题型之一,也是学生普遍反映较难、得分率较低的部分。这个题型主要的考核知识点包括串句、破句、错误平行结构、修饰语错置、垂悬修饰语。改写病句共五道题,每道3分,总15分。考生在复习这个题型时应明确这五种结构错误的基本概念和特点,学会判断错误类型并掌握每种错误类型的修改方法和技巧。

  一、串句(Run-on sentences)

  串句是指在没有连接词或标点符号的情况下,将两个独立的单句串在一起。这种错句常使读者感到困惑,说不清哪里该起,哪里该止,有些是仅将两个单句用逗号隔开,犯了“逗号割裂”(comma splice)错误。修改串句的方法有:句号与大写;逗号与连接词;使用分号。例如:

  (1)Reading is an important part of our lives it is hard to imagine it can be replaced.(2010.1)

  应改为:Reading is an important part of our lives.It is hard to imagine it can be replaced./It is hard to imagine reading can be replaced as it is an important part of our lives.

  (2)There is a very beautiful garden on campus,that is my favorite spot.(2009.10)

  应改为:There is a very beautiful garden on campus,which is my favorite spot./ There is a very beautiful garden on campus.That is my favorite spot.

  (3)Do your homework first,you may go out to play football.(2009.1)

  应改为:Do your homework first.Then you may go out to play football.

  (4)In summer,Juanna didn’t love traveling in Rome she felt it was too hot there.(2008.10)

  应改为:In summer,Juanna didn’t love traveling in Rome.She felt it was too hot there./In summer,Juanna didn’t love traveling in Rome because she felt it was too hot there.

  (5)I am very tired this evening,it was a long day at the office.(2008.1)

  应改为:I am very tired this evening.It was a long day at the office./ I am very tired this evening after a long day at the office.

  二、破句(Fragmentary sentences)

  要表达一个完整的意思,每个句子都必须有主语和谓语动词。有些所谓的句子,或无主语,或无谓语动词,仅仅是单词的堆砌,在语法上是讲不通的,而且语义也不完整。修改方法有:把破句附属于其前或其后的一个主句或去掉这个从属连词;把现在分词改成动词的正确形式;给破句加上主语和动词,使其成为一个完整的句子;改变必要的词使破句成为它前面句子的一部分。例如:

  (1)Before the widespread use of the Internet.There was no universal way to download new reading materials.(2010.1)

  应改为:Before the widespread use of the Internet,there was no universal way to download new reading materials.

  (2)Without low-cost transportation.Millions of Africans have a long walk to their destinations.(2010.1)

  应改为:Without low-cost transportation,millions of Africans have a long walk to their destinations.

  (3)She closed her eyes.Thinking back through the years of being mother,wife,friend,daughter,and sister.(2009.10)

  应改为:She closed her eyes,thinking back through the years of being mother,wife,friend,daughter,and sister.

  (4)I could not help looking back at him.Tears streaming down my face.(2009.1)

  应改为:I could not help looking back at him,tears streaming down my face.

  (5)One of Jenny’s greatest joys in life is eating desserts.Such as milkshake,cookies or strawberry cake.(2008.10)

  应改为:One of Jenny’s greatest joys in life is eating desserts such as milkshake,cookies or strawberry cake.

  (6)A very powerful story that really puts its message across.(2008.1)

  应改为:It is a very powerful story that really puts its message across.

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