自考英语课中错误的平行结构和修饰语错置的分析

2019-06-04
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错误的平行结构(Faulty parallelism)

  平行结构是把两个或两个以上意思并列的成分用同等的语法形式表达出来。如果意思上并列的成分用不同等的语法形式来表达就破坏了平行结构。平行结构是一种有效表达思想的手段,它能使句子整齐、对称、流畅,使句意富有节奏感。平行结构可以是单词、词组、从句,也可以是句子。修改时应注意:由并列连词连接的一组词,其所连接的部分必须具有相同的语法结构;注意错误的省略;注意用than或as引出的比较。 例如:

(1)In Africa,people walk to fetch water,get to school and to travel to the market.(2010.1)

  应改为:In Africa,people walk to fetch water,get to school and travel to the market.

  (2)His grades are not as satisfactory as Jim.(2009.10)

  应改为:His grades are not as satisfactory as Jim’s.

  (3)Susan likes to swim in summer and skiing in winter.(2009.1)

  应改为:Susan likes to swim in summer and ski in winter.

  (4)Shakespeare wrote comedies,tragedies,romances,and the plays which were based on historical events.(2008.10)

  应改为:Shakespeare wrote comedies,tragedies,romances,and historical plays.

  (5)I never saw so many cheerful,courteous students and helpful.(2008.1)

  应改为:I never saw so many cheerful,courteous,and helpful students.

  四、修饰语错置(Misplaced modifiers)

  修饰语错置是因修饰语与被修饰语之间的位置不恰当(通常是相互之间间隔得太远)而造成的语意模糊现象。修饰语可以是单词、词组、从句,也可以是句子。为避免修饰语错置,修饰语和被修饰的词要尽量靠近。例如:

  (1)The teacher assigned the homework to the students that was too difficult.(2009.10)

  应改为:The teacher assigned the homework that was too difficult to the students.

  (2)Rita mentioned the operation she had had in the elevator.(2009.1)

  应改为:In the elevator,Rita mentioned the operation she had had.

  (3)Peter ordered the meal for his friends ranging from fried shrimp to chopped beef.(2008.10)

  应改为:Peter ordered the meal ranging from fried shrimp to chopped beef for his friends.

  (4)I have followed the instruction faithfully given by the manual.(2008.1)

  应改为:I have followed faithfully the instruction given by the manual.

  五、垂悬修饰语(Dangling modifiers)

  垂悬修饰语是指短语或从句(没有主语或谓语,或主语谓语全无)在逻辑上与所修饰的部分相分离,所以这部分短语或从句好像与句子的其他部分无关。修改办法有:补出隐含的主语:把垂悬短语或省略从句扩展为完整的从句等。例如:

  (1)To lose weight,hamburgers must not be eaten.(2010.1)

  应改为:To lose weight,you must not eat hamburgers.

  (2)Wading through the stream,a rock cut one of my bare feet.(2009.10)

  应改为:When I was wading through the stream,a rock cut one of my bare feet.

  (3)To join the club,a form should be filled in first.(2009.1)

  应改为:To join the club,you should fill in a form first.

  (4)While driving on Blueberry Avenue yesterday afternoon,a tree fell toward Jack’s car.(2008.10)

  应改为:While Jack was driving on Blueberry Avenue yesterday afternoon,a tree fell toward his car.

  (5)To take this course,the professor must give her approval.(2008.1)

  应改为:To take this course,she must get the approval from the professor.

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